Medical knowledge has changed drastically!

Related image
Emerging medical knowledge does not support the current practice of medicine. Today we have intimate knowledge about the microbiome, mycobiome, epigenetics, circadian rhythms, and the mind body connection. All of this negate the reductionist approach currently being followed and points towards holism.

The microbiome and the mycobiome are about bacteria, fungi and parasites in our body. The combined knowledge states that bacteria, viruses, and parasites are responsible for life to emerge and develop and they are an integral part of our lives directing bodily functions, our choices and our mental health.

Another discovery is the functions of the vagus nerve linking our gut to all organs and the brain - the command center for function of the parasympatheic nervous system. The lymphatic system is an area gaining interest - the detoxification and infection fighting arm of the body. This extends to the brain. Both indicate that the mind and body operate in tandem. The circadian rhythm underscores the value of routine and bodily needs. The science of epigenetics teaches us how unjust interventions and external influences deeply affect us, often across generations.

Scientists studying the mind are revealing the great healing influence our thoughts can have. Very interesting are studies on Buddhist monks who have shown how the mind can control bodily functions.

Study of the immune system reveals that what was once thought to be only a preventive aspect has a curative and maintenance side as well. The theory of chaos and change indicates that a life force controls bodily functions and it is disturbances to this that is the real cause of disease. It also teaches us how the body is in constant state of flux and it is this chaos that is behind good health and vitality.

Medical science today has been turned on its head and it is the knowledge of holistic sciences that has been well and truly validated with these findings. All the interventions that the day's medical practice considers to be essential have been seriously questioned. However it will take decades before this knowledge reaches medical textbooks. Whether it will reach or not depends upon the drug industry that controls medicine. And that is a big question mark.

Kuby's Immunology, 7th Edition, p. 1.
"But the immune system is also much more than an isolated component of the body, merely responsible for search-and-destroy missions. In fact, it interleaves with many of the other body systems, including the endocrine, nervous, and metabolic systems, with more connections undoubtedly to be discovered in time."

How the microbiome challenges our concept of self
The Human Mycobiome
Fungi are fundamental to the human microbiome, the collection of microbes distributed across and within the body, and the microbiome has been shown, in total, to modify fundamental human physiology, including energy acquisition, vitamin-cofactor availability, xenobiotic metabolism, immune development and function, and even neurological development and behavior. Here, a comprehensive review of current knowledge about the mycobiome, the collective of fungi within the microbiome, highlights methods for its study, diversity between body sites, and dynamics during human development, health, and disease. Early-stage studies show interactions between the mycobiome and other microbes, with host physiology, and in pathogenic and mutualistic phenotypes. Current research portends a vital role for the mycobiome in human health and disease.
Function of the Vagus Nerve

The New Era of the Lymphatic System: No Longer Secondary to the Blood Vascular System

New Imaging Approach Reveals Lymph System in Brain

Circadian rhythm
A circadian rhythm is a roughly 24 hour cycle in the physiological processes of living beings, including plants, animals, fungi and cyanobacteria.
In a strict sense, circadian rhythms are endogenously generated, although they can be modulated by external cues such as sunlight and temperature.
Circadian rhythms are important in determining the sleeping and feeding patterns of all animals, including human beings.
There are clear patterns of brain wave activity, hormone production, cell regeneration and other biological activities linked to this daily cycle.
Your Environment Can Change Your Gene Expression – The Emerging Science of Epigenetics

We are born with a certain set of inherited genes – our DNA. It is what makes us unique. Yet we know that genetically identical twins do not always get the same diseases. How can that be? The answer is simple, the environment is which they live is different. How we look and act results from the interaction of our genes and our environment – the interaction occurs through the epigenome, which includes all the elements that are capable of turning genes on and off. This remarkable field of study is called Epigenetics. We now know chemical changes in our environment can regulate gene activity and change gene expression. There is no question that major medical conditions from Alzheimer’s disease and type 2 diabetes to heart disease and some cancers are influenced by how we live our lives. What we eat, how we manage stress, how we live and manage our exposure to toxins all influence our epigenetics

Just how much power does the mind have to heal the body?
The idea that the mind can exert healing powers over the body is one that is most often associated with pseudoscience — and, usually, justifiably so. Cancer patients can’t think their way to healthy; depression doesn’t work like that, either. 
But, on the other hand, consider the placebo effect and the subjective improvement in symptoms people report after taking bogus drugs. Clearly, the mind and body work in tandem when it comes to our experience of some physical ailments — but which ones, and to what extent?
In a new book Cure: A Journey Into the Science of Mind Over Body, science writer Jo Marchant takes on this question, exploring the ways many scientists are now attempting to harness the placebo effect to improve patient care. Marchant is a skeptical, evidence-based reporter — one with a background in microbiology, no less — which makes for a fascinating juxtaposition against some of the alternative treatments she discusses. She spoke recently with Science of Us about the very real physiological and biochemical changes that can occur in the brain and body as a result of some totally fake treatments.
Studies of Advanced Stages of Meditation in the Tibetan Buddhist and Vedic Traditions. I: A Comparison of General Changes

This article is the first of two comparing findings of studies of advanced practitioners of Tibetan Buddhist meditation in remote regions of the Himalayas, with established results on long-term practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation programs. Many parallel levels of improvement were found, in sensory acuity, perceptual style and cognitive function, indicating stabilization of aspects of attentional awareness. Together with observed increases in EEG coherence and aspects of brain function, such changes are consistent with growth towards a state of total brain functioning, i.e. development of full mental potential. They are usually accompanied by improved health parameters. How they may be seen to be consistent with growth of enlightenment will be the subject of a second article.
CNS Remyelination and the Innate Immune System

A misguided inflammatory response is frequently implicated in myelin damage. Particularly prominent among myelin diseases, multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune condition, with immune–mediated damage central to its etiology. Nevertheless, a robust inflammatory response is also essential for the efficient regeneration of myelin sheaths after such injury. Here, we discuss the functions of inflammation that promote remyelination, and how these have been experimentally disentangled from the pathological facets of the immune response.

Does chaos theory have major implications for philosophy of medicine?

This, then is my vision of what will happen to our scientific perception of disease during the next century: we shall realise the wisdom of the ancient Aristotelian approach to the study of nature, which means that we shall no longer regard disease as a “mechanical fault in the human machine” but as a disturbed life process. We shall apply the theories of open systems and non-linear dynamics to medical problems, and we shall reach a fuller understanding of the development of disease.1
In the literature it is sometimes claimed that chaos theory, non-linear dynamics, and the theory of fractals have major implications for philosophy of medicine, especially for our analysis of the concept of disease and the concept of causation. This paper gives a brief introduction to the concepts underlying chaos theory and non-linear dynamics. It is then shown that chaos theory has only very minimal implications for the analysis of the concept of disease and the concept of causation, mainly because the mathematics of chaotic processes entail that these processes are fully deterministic. The practical unpredictability of chaotic processes, caused by their extreme sensitivity to initial conditions, may raise practical problems in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, but it raises no major theoretical problems. The relation between chaos theory and the problem of free will is discussed, and it is shown that chaos theory may remove the problem of predictability of decisions, but does not solve the problem of free will. Chaos theory may thus be very important for our understanding of physiological processes, and specific disease entities, without having any major implications for philosophy of medicine.